Beyond ES6 — ES7 to ES13

A Deep Dive into the Latest JavaScript Features (ES7 to ES13)

राहुल मिश्रा
15 min readNov 25, 2023

ES7 / ECMAScript 2016

1. Exponentiation Operator

It returns the first argument raised to the power of the second argument. Does the same thing as Math.pow()

2 ** 3 = 8

5 ** 4 = 625

2. Array.prototype.includes()

Use to check if particular value exists in array or not. Return true if match found, otherwise returns false .

["a", "b", "c"].includes("a"); // true
["a", "b", "c"].includes("g"); // false
["ab", "b", "c"].includes("a"); // false

3. Trailing Commas in Function Parameters

In arrays we can have a trailing comma like [1,2,]. just to make uniformity, no we can have trailing comman in function parameters and arguments.

const test = (x,y,z,)=> console.log(x,y,z)
test(0,1,2) //Logs: 0,1,2

ES8 / ECMAScript 2017

1. Async Functions

We can add async keyword before function to make then asynchronous. And then we can use await keyword inside it.

By using async await , we can make our code look like synchronous.

async function test() {
const result = await fetch();

2. padStart and padEnd

We can add any character at start of string and end of string, to make string of specific length.

const str = "hello";
str.padStart(10); // "     hello"str.padEnd(10); // "hello     "str.padStart(10, "*"); // "*****hello"str.padEnd(10, "$"); // "hello*****""2".padStart(2, "0"); // 02

3. Object.entries()

It accepts a object, and returns an array container array (tuples). Where at 0 index Object Key will be there and at index 1, corresponding value will be there.

const obj = {name:'JS', lib: 'React'};


[ ['name', 'JS'] , ['lib', 'React'] ] // Output

4. Object.values()

It accepts a object, and returns an array containing only the values inside object, separated by comma.

const obj = {name:'JS', lib: 'React'};


['JS', 'React'] // Output

5. Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptors()

It takes object as argument, and returns an object, which contains all the property description information about the keys, in passed object.

const obj = {name:'JS', lib: 'React'};

ES9 / ECMAScript 2018

Asynchronous Iteration

function fetcher(task,time) {
return new Promise(function(res) {
setTimeout(function() {
res(`${task} Done`);
}, time);

const tasks = [1,2,3,4].map(d => {
return fetcher(d, 1000* d);

(async () => {
for await (const value of tasks) {


Promises now have a finally block, which will be exuected after then or catch block.
If we have any task that needs to be done in both then and catch block, we can now simply do that in finally block.

For example: Hiding the loader.


ES10 / ECMAScript 2019

1. Array.prototype.flat()

The flat() method creates a new array with all sub-array elements concatenated into it recursively up to the specified depth. If no depth is provided, it defaults to 1.

const nestedArray = [1, [2, [3, 4, [5]]]];

const flatArray = nestedArray.flat();

console.log(flatArray); // [1, 2, [3, 4, [5]]]

// Using a depth of 2
const deeplyFlatArray = nestedArray.flat(2);

console.log(deeplyFlatArray); // [1, 2, 3, 4, [5]]

2. Array.prototype.flatMap()

The flatMap() method first maps each element using a mapping function, then flattens the result into a new array. It is essentially a combination of map() and flat().

const array = [1, 2, 3, 4];

const doubledAndFlattened = array.flatMap(num => [num * 2]);

console.log(doubledAndFlattened); // [2, 4, 6, 8]

The power of flatMap() becomes more evident when dealing with arrays of objects:

const people = [
{ name: 'John', hobbies: ['reading', 'coding'] },
{ name: 'Alice', hobbies: ['music', 'painting'] }

const allHobbies = people.flatMap(person => person.hobbies);

console.log(allHobbies); // ['reading', 'coding', 'music', 'painting']

Here, flatMap() is used to extract all hobbies from an array of objects, resulting in a flat array of hobbies.

Both flat() and flatMap() provide convenient ways to work with nested arrays and simplify the code for array transformations.

3. Object.fromEntries()

Transforms a list of key-value pairs into an object

const entries = [
['name', 'John'],
['age', 30],
['city', 'New York']

const personObject = Object.fromEntries(entries);

// Output: { name: 'John', age: 30, city: 'New York' }

4. String.prototype.trimStart()

The trimStart() method removes whitespace characters from the beginning (start) of a string and returns the resulting string.

const stringWithWhitespace = "   Hello, world!   ";

const trimmedStart = stringWithWhitespace.trimStart();

// Output: "Hello, world! "

5. String.prototype.trimEnd()

The trimEnd() method removes whitespace characters from the end of a string and returns the resulting string.

const stringWithWhitespace = "   Hello, world!   ";

const trimmedEnd = stringWithWhitespace.trimEnd();

// Output: " Hello, world!"

6. Symbol.prototype.description

  • read-only property
  • It returns a string that provides a description of the symbol. This description is the one that was provided when the symbol was created.
// Creating a symbol with a description
const mySymbol = Symbol('This is a custom symbol');

// Accessing the description using Symbol.prototype.description
const symbolDescription = mySymbol.description;

// Output: "This is a custom symbol"

if no description was provided when creating the symbol, or if the symbol was created before the description property was introduced, the result will be undefined.

// Creating a symbol without a description
const anotherSymbol = Symbol();

// Accessing the description of a symbol without a description
const anotherSymbolDescription = anotherSymbol.description;

// Output: undefined

This property is useful when you want to associate additional information or metadata with a symbol, making it more human-readable or providing context about its purpose. It’s important to use the description property judiciously, as it's mainly intended for debugging and development purposes and not for critical program logic.

ES11 / ECMA Script 2020

1. Private Class Variables

with use of # we can now have private variables inside class.

class Person {
#name = 'JS';

getName() {
return this.#name;

const person = new Person();

console.log(person.getName()); // JS
//console.log(person.#name); // throws error

2. Static Fields

class Person {
static name = 'JS';

getName() {

const person = new Person();


2. Promise.allSettled

used to handle multiple promises concurrently. Unlike Promise.all, which rejects immediately if any promise in the array rejects, Promise.allSettled waits for all promises to either fulfill or reject before resolving. This makes it useful when you want to know the result of all promises, regardless of whether they fulfilled or rejected.

Returns an array of result for each rejected and resolved promise.

const promises = [
Promise.resolve('Resolved Promise 1'),
Promise.reject('Rejected Promise 2'),
Promise.resolve('Resolved Promise 3'),

.then((results) => {
results.forEach((result) => {
if (result.status === 'fulfilled') {
console.log('Fulfilled:', result.value);
} else if (result.status === 'rejected') {
console.log('Rejected:', result.reason);
.catch((error) => {
console.error('Error in Promise.allSettled:', error);

3. Optional Chaining Operator

Used for dealing with situations where you want to access properties or call methods on nested objects, but you’re not sure if the intermediate properties or objects exist. It helps to avoid TypeError errors that might occur when trying to access properties or methods on null or undefined.


const user = {
id: 1,
name: 'John',
address: {
city: 'New York',
postalCode: '10001',

// Without Optional Chaining
const postalCodeWithoutOptionalChaining = user.address.postalCode; // This could throw an error if 'address' is null or undefined

// With Optional Chaining
const postalCodeWithOptionalChaining = user.address?.postalCode; // No error even if 'address' is null or undefined

console.log(postalCodeWithoutOptionalChaining); // Error if 'address' is null or undefined
console.log(postalCodeWithOptionalChaining); // undefined if 'address' is null or undefined

4. Nullish Coalescing

It provides a concise way to handle default values in situations where null or undefined are considered falsy values.

const result = valueToCheck ?? defaultValue;

The ?? operator returns the right-hand operand (defaultValue) when the left-hand operand (valueToCheck) is null or undefined. Otherwise, it returns the left-hand operand.


Consider a scenario where you want to assign a default value to a variable only if the current value is null or undefined

// Without Nullish Coalescing
let userInput = null; // This value can come from user input or an external source

let username = userInput !== null && userInput !== undefined ? userInput : 'Guest';

console.log(username); // 'Guest' when userInput is null or undefined

// With Nullish Coalescing
let userInput = null;

let username = userInput ?? 'Guest';

console.log(username); // 'Guest' when userInput is null or undefined

5. Dynamic Import

Dynamic import is a feature in JavaScript that allows you to import modules conditionally or on-demand during runtime. It is implemented using the import() function, which returns a Promise that resolves to the module namespace object.

Here’s an example of dynamic import:

// Dynamic import example

// Assuming you have a module named 'mathFunctions' with various functions
// export const add = (a, b) => a + b;
// export const subtract = (a, b) => a - b;

// Importing the module dynamically
const mathModulePromise = import('./mathFunctions');

// Resolving the promise to get the module namespace object
mathModulePromise.then((mathModule) => {
const result1 = mathModule.add(5, 3);
const result2 = mathModule.subtract(8, 4);

console.log('Result of addition:', result1);
console.log('Result of subtraction:', result2);
.catch((error) => {
console.error('Error during dynamic import:', error);

In this example:

  1. The import('./mathFunctions') statement is used to dynamically import the module named 'mathFunctions'. The path provided to import() is relative to the location of the module importing it.
  2. The result is a Promise (mathModulePromise) that resolves to the module namespace object when the module is successfully loaded.
  3. The then block is executed when the module is successfully imported, and you can then use the functions or variables defined in the imported module.

This feature is particularly useful when you want to load modules conditionally or when you only need them in specific parts of your code. It can help improve performance by deferring the loading of certain modules until they are actually needed.

6. BigInt

data type that allows you to work with very large integers beyond the limits of the standard Number type. It is useful when you need to represent and perform operations on integers that are larger than what can be accurately represented with regular JavaScript numbers.

// Regular number can't accurately represent large integers
const regularNumber = 9007199254740991;
console.log(regularNumber + 1); // Outputs: 9007199254740992 (expected)

const beyondLimit = 9007199254740992;
console.log(beyondLimit + 1); // Outputs: 9007199254740992 (not the expected 9007199254740993)

// Using BigInt for large integers
const bigIntNumber = BigInt(9007199254740991);
console.log(bigIntNumber + BigInt(1)); // Outputs: 9007199254740992n (notice the 'n' indicating BigInt)

const beyondLimitBigInt = BigInt(9007199254740992);
console.log(beyondLimitBigInt + BigInt(1)); // Outputs: 9007199254740993n

7. globalThis

globalThis is a JavaScript global object that provides a standardized way to access the global object in any environment (including browsers and Node.js). The specific global object varies depending on the context in which the JavaScript code is running:

  • In a browser environment, the global object is window.
  • In a Node.js environment, the global object is global.

globalThis provides a consistent way to access the global object across different JavaScript environments, making code more portable and avoiding environment-specific code.

Here’s an example to illustrate its usage:

// In a browser environment
console.log(globalThis === window); // Outputs: true

// In a Node.js environment
console.log(globalThis === global); // Outputs: true

By using globalThis, you can write code that works across different environments without explicitly referring to window or global. This can be especially useful in scenarios where your code needs to run in various contexts, such as shared libraries or modules that may be used in both browser and server-side environments.

// Example of using globalThis for a timeout
globalThis.setTimeout(() => {
console.log('Timeout completed!');
}, 1000);

This usage ensures that the setTimeout function is accessed from the global object, regardless of the environment, making the code more portable.

ES12 / ECMA Script 2021

1. String.prototype.replaceAll()

replaceAll method on string replaces all occurrence of particular string with passed string.
It returns a new string, it does not modify the original string.

const str = "hello there, hello mr, hello how?";
const newStr = str.replaceAll("hello", "bye");

console.log(newStr); // bye there, bye mr, bye how?

2. Promise.any

It takes an iterable of Promises and returns a single Promise. This new Promise is fulfilled with the value of the first fulfilled Promise from the iterable.

If any promise get rejected in between, if waits for other promises to get resolve.

If all Promises in the iterable are rejected, it returns a single rejected Promise with an AggregateError containing an array of rejection reasons.

const promise1 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
setTimeout(() => resolve('Promise 1 resolved'), 1000);

const promise2 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
setTimeout(() => reject('Promise 2 rejected'), 500);

const promise3 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
setTimeout(() => resolve('Promise 3 resolved'), 1500);

Promise.any([promise1, promise2, promise3])
.then(result => {
console.log('Fulfilled:', result);
.catch(error => {
console.log('Rejected:', error);

In this example, Promise.any() is used to handle an array of three Promises. promise1 and promise3 will be resolved, but promise2 will be rejected. Since Promise.any() returns a Promise that is fulfilled with the value of the first fulfilled Promise, it will log 'Fulfilled: Promise 1 resolved' to the console.

3. WeakRef

In JavaScript, a WeakRef is an object that holds a weak reference to another object. A weak reference is a reference that does not prevent the object it references from being garbage-collected. This is in contrast to a strong reference, which keeps an object alive as long as the reference exists.

it provides a way to create weak references in JavaScript. The primary use case for WeakRef is to avoid memory leaks by allowing objects to be garbage-collected when they are no longer in use.

const obj = { data: 'example' };
const weakRef = new WeakRef(obj);

const objFromWeakRef = weakRef.deref();
console.log(objFromWeakRef); // Outputs: { data: 'example' }

Example with Garbage Collection

let weakRef;

const localObj = { data: 'local' };
weakRef = new WeakRef(localObj);

// At this point, 'localObj' is out of scope, and it can be garbage-collected

const retrievedObj = weakRef.deref();
console.log(retrievedObj); // Outputs: undefined (because 'localObj' has been garbage-collected)

4. &&=, ||= and ??=

&&= (Logical AND Assignment)

This operator assigns the right operand to the left operand if the left operand is truthy.

let x = 5;
let y = 10;

x &&= y;

console.log(x); // Outputs: 10 (because x is truthy, it gets assigned the value of y)

||= (Logical OR Assignment)

This operator assigns the right operand to the left operand if the left operand is falsy.

let a = 0;
let b = 20;

a ||= b;

console.log(a); // Outputs: 20 (because a is falsy, it gets assigned the value of b)

??= (Nullish Coalescing Assignment)

This operator assigns the right operand to the left operand if the left operand is null or undefined, but not for other falsy values.

let p = null;
let q = 42;

p ??= q;

console.log(p); // Outputs: 42 (because p is null, it gets assigned the value of q)

5. Numeric separators

It allow you to use underscores (_) as separators within numeric literals to improve readability. This feature is particularly useful when dealing with large numbers.

const billionWithSeparators = 1_000_000_000; // 1 billion
const trillionWithSeparators = 1_000_000_000_000; // 1 trillion

// Invalid use of separators
const invalid1 = 1_000_; // Error: trailing separator
const invalid2 = _1000; // Error: leading separator
const invalid3 = 1.0_0; // Error: separator after decimal point
const invalid4 = 0x_1A; // Error: separator before hexadecimal digits

ES13 / ECMA Script 2022

1. Top-level await

Top-level await is a feature in JavaScript that allows you to use the await keyword at the top level of your modules. Traditionally, the await keyword could only be used inside an async function, but with top-level await, you can use it directly at the top level of your module.

// Assuming there is an asynchronous function fetchData defined somewhere
// async function fetchData() {
// // Some asynchronous operation, e.g., fetching data from an API
// return await fetch('');
// }

// Using top-level await
const result = await fetchData();


It’s important to note that top-level await is only allowed at the top level of modules. If you try to use it in other contexts, such as in a regular script, it will result in a syntax error.

// This is valid in a module
const result = await fetchData();

// This is not valid in a regular script
// Uncaught SyntaxError: await is only valid in async functions and the top level bodies of modules

2. at() method for Strings, Arrays

It allows you to access the character at a specified index in a String or the element at a specified index in an Array.

The key feature of at() is that it supports negative indices, making it easier to access elements from the end of the String or Array.

const str = 'Hello, World!';

console.log(; // "e"
console.log(; // "!"
console.log(; // undefined

const arr = ['apple', 'banana', 'orange'];

console.log(; // "apple"
console.log(; // "orange"
console.log(; // undefined

3. Object.hasOwn Method

Previously we had two methods to check if a property exists in object or not.
Obj.hasOwnProperty() and in operator.
But both of these methods has some downside.

Downside of hasOwnProperty

  1. The Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty() method is not safeguarded; it can be redefined by creating a custom hasOwnProperty() method within a class, potentially leading to entirely different functionality compared to Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty().
class Vehicle {
model = 'sedan';
year = 2022;

// This method, despite its name, does not determine if an object
// of this class possesses a specific property.
hasOwnProperty() {
return true; // Custom behavior, different from the standard hasOwnProperty

const vehicle = new Vehicle();

console.log(vehicle.hasOwnProperty('year')); // true
console.log(vehicle.hasOwnProperty('type')); // true

2. Another concern arises when dealing with objects created with a null prototype, such as those generated using Object.create(null). Attempting to invoke this method on such objects may result in an error.

const customObject = Object.create(null);
customObject.type = 'vehicle';
customObject.year = 2022;

// Error: customObject.hasOwnProperty is not a function

Downside of in operator

The in operator checks for the existence of a property not only in the object itself but also in its prototype chain. This might lead to unexpected results if you're not careful, especially when dealing with inherited properties.

const parentObject = { sharedProperty: 'I am shared' };
const childObject = Object.create(parentObject);

console.log('sharedProperty' in childObject); // true

We can use hasOwn method to resolve such issues.

const customObject = Object.create(null);
customObject.type = 'vehicle';
customObject.year = 2022;
customObject.hasOwnProperty = () => true; // Custom method, different from standard hasOwnProperty

console.log(Object.hasOwn(customObject, 'type')); // true
console.log(Object.hasOwn(customObject, 'brand')); // false

4. RegExp match indices

This new functionality enables us to explicitly request both the starting and ending indices of matches for a RegExp object within a specified string.

In the past, obtaining the starting index of a regex match within a string was the only option available.

const str = 'jack and jill';

const regex = /and/;

const matchObj = regex.exec(str);

// [ 'and', index: 5, input: 'jack and jill', groups: undefined ]

In ECMAScript 2023 (ES13), it is now possible to use a d regex flag to obtain both the starting and ending indices of a match.

const str = 'jack and jill';

const regex = /and/d;

const matchObj = regex.exec(str);

index: 5,
input: 'sun and moon',
groups: undefined,
indices: [ [ 5, 8], groups: undefined ] // This is the update

When the d flag is enabled, the returned object will include an indices property, encompassing both the starting and ending indices.

5. Class Field Declarations

Before ES13, class fields could only be declared in the constructor. Unlike in many other languages, we could not declare or define them in the outermost scope of the class.

class Car {
constructor() {
this.color = 'blue';
this.age = 2;

const car = new Car();
console.log(car.color); // blue
console.log(car.age); // 2

ES2022 removes this limitation. Now we can write code like this:

class Car {
color = 'blue';
age = 2;

const car = new Car();
console.log(car.color); // blue
console.log(car.age); // 2

6. Class static Block

ES13 allows the definition of static blocks that will be executed only once, at the creation of the class. This is similar to static constructors in other languages with support for object-oriented programming, like C# and Java.

A class can have any number of static {} initialization blocks in its class body. They will be executed, along with any interleaved static field initializers, in the order they are declared. We can use the super property in a static block to access properties of the super class.

class Vehicle {
static defaultColor = 'blue';

class Car extends Vehicle {
static colors = [];
static {
this.colors.push(super.defaultColor, 'red');
static {
console.log(Car.colors); // [ 'blue', 'red', 'green' ]

7. Ergonomic Brand Checks for Private Fields

We can use this new ES2022 feature to check if an object has a particular private field in it, using the in operator.

class Car {

hasColor() {
return #color in this;

const car = new Car();
console.log(car.hasColor()); // true;

The in operator is able to correctly distinguish private fields with the same names from different classes:

class Car {
hasColor() {
return #color in this;

class House {
hasColor() {
return #color in this;

const car = new Car();
const house = new House();

console.log(car.hasColor()); // true;
console.log(; // false

console.log(house.hasColor()); // true
console.log(; // false

8. Error Cause

The cause data property of an Error instance indicates the specific original cause of the error.

It is used when catching and re-throwing an error with a more-specific or useful error message in order to still have access to the original error.

Useful when we have nested blocks, and we want to distinguish between between which error we have thrown, we can simply check error.cause property

try {
} catch (err) {
throw new Error("Connecting to database failed.", { cause: err });

9. Array Find from Last

The findLast() method of Array instances iterates the array in reverse order and returns the value of the first element that satisfies the provided testing function. If no elements satisfy the testing function, undefined is returned.

const array1 = [5, 12, 50, 130, 44];

const found = array1.findLast((element) => element > 45);

// Expected output: 130

The findLastIndex() method of Array instances iterates the array in reverse order and returns the index of the first element that satisfies the provided testing function. If no elements satisfy the testing function, -1 is returned.

const array1 = [5, 12, 50, 130, 44];

const isLargeNumber = (element) => element > 45;

// Expected output: 3
// Index of element with value: 130